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Thread: Pakistan historical places and info

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    Default Pakistan historical places and info

    Asslamulaikum everyone. I am going to share information and images of historical places in Pakistan. There are some really beautiful places and interesting info on these places. I think that it will make understanding our history more exciting and interesting. Please share too if you have anything.



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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Tour to Harappa



    One of the two sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa is located in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and the site lies some 35 kilometres southwest of Sahiwal. Harappa is the first site of the Indus Valley Civilization that was discovered in the 1920s. Harappa is located about 250 kilometres from Lahore.

    Harappa has been the centre of curiosity and interest among history students, historians and archaeologists since its discovery some 85 years ago. A date with history is what takes many tourists to Harappa. Excavations in Harappa have revealed a civilization, which was excellent in town planning and other sphere of every day life.


    But it is the excellent town planning that have received kudos from the historians and archaeologists. The houses at Harappa were built in burned brick and had excellent drainage system. Every house had a well as an integral part of it. Roads were wide and were well connected to the streets. Excavations have unearthed a number of artefacts that provide a glimpse of the way of life and various customs and traditions prevalent in Harappa. The cemeteries found in Harappa gives a clear indication that the Harappan people used to burry their dead. They were fond of wearing necklace, ring, bangle and other jewellery. As, many skeletons found in Harappa had beads and anklets in their grave.

    A tour to Harappa takes you close to one of the largest civilizations in the world. The Harappa tour is a wonderful discovery of our past. Harappa helps us understand, how modern and progressive was the Indus Valley Civilization.


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    Tour to Takht-I-Bahi



    Takht-I-Bahi is another exciting historical site that you can visit on your tour to Pakistan. Located about 80 kilometres from Peshawar, Takht-I-Bahi has ruins of an ancient Buddhist monastery atop a hill.

    A French officer General Court in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh first mentioned about Takht-I-Bahi in 1836. The monastery is believed to date back to the 2nd or 3rd century AD. Takht-I-Bahi is an impressive Buddhist Monastery in Pakistan. The site has rectangular court and the small shrines that surround the stupa-court. The shrines are classical example of fine design and architecture. The hill offers magnificent views of the surrounding area.

    The site is a great source of information on Buddhism and the way of life people here used to follow. The site is an excellent example of brilliant planning and scientific architecture. Song Yun, a Chinese pilgrim, who visited the region, describes Takht-I-Bahi as one of the important city lying on the commercial route to India.


    Excavations of the site have unearthed a number of building blocks like the courtyard, the main stupa, assembly hall and the low level chambers.


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Tour to Uch Sharif




    Uch Sharif is one of the beautiful historical sites in Pakistan. Located at the confluence of the Sutlej and Chenab, Uch Sharif is a wonderful tourist destination. Different historians have different views about the history of Uch Sharif, some say the town was there before the reign of Bikramajit. Uch Sharif was under the Hindu ruler before Alexander's invasion.

    Uch Sharif is basically famous for various beautiful shrines and tombs. The beautiful shrines and tombs are what attract many tourists to Uch Sharif. Uch Sharif has been divided into three sections, which are named after three important personalities and rulers. Uch Bukhari is named after the name of Hazrat Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkhposh while Uch Jilani has borrowed its name from Hazrat Shaikh Mohammad Ghaus Qadri Jilani. The third section is Uch Mughlian is named after the Mughal rulers.


    Some of the famous shrines in Uch Sharif include Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari, Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, Hazrat Bahawal Haleem, Shaikh Saifuddin Ghazrooni and Bibi Jawandi. The tomb of Bibi Jawinidi is a wonderful monument that is beautifully designed and is covered in a number of tiny blue tiles that present wonderful sight when sunrays fall on them. The shrine of Jalauddin Bukhari is a must visit sight at Uch Sharif. The saint is believed to have converted the legendary warrior Genghis Khan to Islam.


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Kot Diji



    The discovery of Kot Diji in Pakistan has pushed back the history of the Indian sub continent some 300 years. After the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization, it was believed that Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were the first civilizations of the sub continent that date back to 2,500 BC. But the discovery of Kot Diji, which is located between Ranipur and Khairpur (on the highway from Hyderabad), made historians and archaeologists believe that there was a civilization before the Indus Valley Civilization.

    Excavations of the site and the evidence that archaeologists have found from Kot Diji are of pre-Harappan and pre-Mohenjo Daro time. Historians and archaeologists believe that Indus Valley Civilization borrowed or developed some of the basic elements of life and culture from the civilization that was thriving at Kot Diji.


    A journey to Kot Diji reveals the way of life Kot Dijians used to follow. The site at Kot Diji has two sections to it. One, that is spread over on the high ground belonged to the ruling elite while the outer area was inhabited by the common man. Excavations have shown that the houses in Kot Diji were built by mud-bricks and had solid stone foundations.


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    wah noor bitiya, very wonderful and informative thread.
    thank you so much for this wonderful sharing
    and guriya keep the efforts up. hum ko ziada se ziada pakistan ke barey main yahan share kerna chahiyeh hai so that people know how blessed we are


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Awesome stuff Noor... way to go! keep it up

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Wow maire matlab ka thread Sis yeh aisa hee thread aik main nai start kiya tha us ka link yeh hai:
    http://www.familybunker.com/forums/i...-pakistan.html

    is main mai nai MeharGarh ka zikar kiya hai, ho sakai tu us kee information share kerain.

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Love that Takht-I-Bahi image

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Nice one Xeon.

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by NaDeeM View Post
    wah noor bitiya, very wonderful and informative thread.
    thank you so much for this wonderful sharing
    and guriya keep the efforts up. hum ko ziada se ziada pakistan ke barey main yahan share kerna chahiyeh hai so that people know how blessed we are
    thank u nadeem bhai ur ryt, aur mein zaroor jitna pakistan peh share kar sakti hoon, wo karoon gi

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by J-Dam View Post
    Awesome stuff Noor... way to go! keep it up
    thanx j-dam

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by xeon View Post
    Wow maire matlab ka thread Sis yeh aisa hee thread aik main nai start kiya tha us ka link yeh hai:
    http://www.familybunker.com/forums/i...-pakistan.html

    is main mai nai MeharGarh ka zikar kiya hai, ho sakai tu us kee information share kerain.
    thanx xeon mujhe nehien pata tha ke eik thread already bana hua hai, nehien to mein app ke thread mein hi add kar deti. chalein, mein zaroor jaoon gi ayr MeharGarh par jo bhi info mili wo share karoon gi

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    You're welcome Noorlight.

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Xeon, concerning MehrGarh, i found this. The image is the same as yours.

    MehrGarh



    Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000-3200 BC) site on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in south Asia. The site is located on the principal route between what is now Afghanistan and the Indus Valley.

    Mehrgarh Period I
    A figurine from Mehrgarh, c. 3000 BCE. (Musée Guimet, Paris)

    Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into several periods. Mehrgarh Period I 7000 BCE–5500 BCE, was Neolithic and aceramic (i.e., without the use of pottery). The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings with four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found far in Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in the South Asia.

    In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture."[3]

    Mehrgarh Period II and Period III

    Mehrgarh Period II 5500 BCE–4800 BCE and Merhgarh Period III 4800 BCE–3500 BCE were ceramic Neolithic (i.e.,pottery was now in use) and later chalcolithic. Much evidence of manufacturing activity has been found and more advanced techniques were used. Glazed faience beads were produced and terracotta figurines became more detailed. Figurines of females were decorated with paint and had diverse hairstyles and ornaments. Two flexed burials were found in period II with a covering of red ochre on the body. The amount of burial goods decreased over time, becoming limited to ornaments and with more goods left with burials of females. The first button seals were produced from terracotta and bone and had geometric designs. Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles. There is further evidence of long-distance trade in period II: important as an indication of this is the discovery of several beads of lapis lazuli—originally from Badakshan.

    Mehrgarh Period VII

    Somewhere between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE, the city seems to have been largely abandoned, which is when the Indus Valley Civilisation was in its middle stages of development. It has been surmised that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh migrated to the fertile Indus valley as Balochistan became more arid due to climatic changes.


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Nice addition Noor..

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by Noorlight View Post
    thank u nadeem bhai ur ryt, aur mein zaroor jitna pakistan peh share kar sakti hoon, wo karoon gi
    u r welcome beta
    aur i am looking forward to your sharing
    Ayesha (baba ki guriya) ne bhi bohat kuch post kiya hai aur ussi ki fermaish per ye pakistan ki category kayem ki gai hai

    i am expecting good sharings from the both of you

    Jeeti raho


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by J-Dam View Post
    Nice addition Noor..
    thanx j-dam

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by NaDeeM View Post
    u r welcome beta
    aur i am looking forward to your sharing
    Ayesha (baba ki guriya) ne bhi bohat kuch post kiya hai aur ussi ki fermaish per ye pakistan ki category kayem ki gai hai

    i am expecting good sharings from the both of you

    Jeeti raho
    yeh ayesha ne bohat ho acha kam kia, aur uss ki thread par mein gaye thee, very beautiful pics. app fikar na karein, jitna mujhe milta gaya, utna mein share karti jaaoon gi, dnt worry thank you

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Katasraj temple



    Katasraj temple is a Hindu temple situated in Katas village in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has existed since the days of Mahābhārata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site. The Pakistan Government is considering nominating the temple complex for World Heritage Site status. It also proposes to spend about Rs 20 million in three phases for the restoration of the complex.

    History

    Most of the temples, located some 40 km from the modern city of Chakwal in the Potohar region of northern Punjab in Pakistan, were built during the reign of Hindu kings. These several temples were built around 900 years ago or more, although the earliest of the Katasraj temples dates back to the latter half of the 6th century A.D [1]. Scholars believe that most of the temples were actually constructed when the Shahi kingdom, driven from Afghanistan when their ethnic cousin Mahmud of Ghanavi came to power, fled to the region and set up base there.

    The temple was abandoned by local Hindus when they migrated to East Punjab in 1947. It has always been the site of holy pilgrimage for people of various faiths. Even nowadays, worshippers from all faiths perform pilgrimages to the temple every year and bathe in the sacred pool around which Katasraj is built.

    After Independence

    The two semi-ruined temples of the Hindushahiya period (650-950 AD) have been frequently photographed by newspapers and history journals. The holy pond was littered with garbage, while the murals inside the temples disappeared due to the ravages of time and the neglect of the authorities.

    Renovation by the Government of Pakistan

    In 2006-07, Pakistan decided to place idols of Hindu gods in the seven temples and restore them to their original state to attract visitors. The budget allocated for the project was Rs. 51.06 million. The temple was visited by India's former deputy prime minister Lal Krishna Advani in 2005. The government decided to import idols of Hindu gods from various monuments in India to Pakistan for the restoration. A three-member archaeological team visited neighbouring India, Sri Lanka and Nepal to collect idols of Hindu gods.


    Architecture
    General view of Katas village, with old temples in foreground, 1875.

    The Katas site houses the Satgraha, a group of seven ancient temples, remains of a Buddhist stupa, a few medieval temples, havelis and some recently constructed temples, scattered around a pond considered holy by Hindus. The temples at Katas are mostly constructed on square platforms. The elevation of the sub shrines seems to form a series of cornices with small rows of pillars, crowned by a ribbed dome.

    The Ramachandra temple is situated to the east of the Hari Singh Haveli and is closed from all sides except for an entrance on the east. The double-storied structure has eight rooms of various dimensions on the ground floor and a staircase at the south leading to the first floor. The temple has two jharokas (balconies) that have been severely damaged.

    The Hanuman temple is on the western extreme of a high rectangular enclosure with entrances on the south and the north. The temple's ceiling is undecorated, and lime-plastered. The Shiva temple is also built on a square platform. Its entrance is a recessed round arch with faint cusps and a rectangular opening to the north.

    Katasraj temple complex is believed to date back to the Mahabharata era. There are stories about the Pandavas spending time there during their long exile. The lake in the complex is believed to have magical powers and supposed to be where Yudhisthira defeated the Yaksha with his wisdom to bring his brothers back to life.

    Legends

    Many legends are associated with the temples, some of them involving Shiva himself. Legend says that the five Pandava brothers, heroes of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, stayed here for four out of the 14 years that they spent in exile.

    Another legend involves the death of Shiva's wife Satti; the story goes that when she died he cried so much and for so long that his tears created two holy ponds - one at Pushkara in Ajmer and the other at Ketaksha, which literally means "raining eyes" in Sanskrit. It is from this name that the word Ketas is derived. Another version of the legend mentions the two pools at Katasraj and Nainital.

    Another legend involves the death of Shiva's horse Katas; the story goes that when that horse died he cried so much and for so long that his tears created two holy ponds - one at Pushkara in Ajmer and the other at Ketaksha, which literally means "raining eyes" in Sanskrit. It is from this name that the word Ketas is derived. Another version of the legend mentions the two pools at Katasraj and Nainital.People bathe in that holy pond and seek forgiveness as Hindu belief holds that bathing in the pond (especially on certain occasions) causes the forgiveness of sins and helps attain salvation. Many people believe that this will come from bathing in the pond at any time. Depth of this holy pond is still a mystery.

    Prehistoric tools and weapons

    Prehistoric tools and weapons such as axes and knives made of granite, and artifacts like terracotta bangles and pottery have been unearthed at the Katasraj site. The latter have been found to be similar to those excavated in Harappa, but have not been dated for want of expert opinion from abroad. The fascinating Salt Ranges have a vast archaeological treasure still hidden underground. Exp****tory work that could expose evidence of an ancient civilisation here needs to be undertaken.

    The Salt Ranges have also been yielding prehistoric finds. While some local experts place the fossils discovered in the period between 6000 and 7000 BC, the fact remains that they have not yet been examined by trained palaeontologists from the West. A large number of bones of the limbs and vertebrae of giant animals resembling the extinct mammoth and dinosaur have been found at some sites. “An entire range of low mountains in the area appears to be fossilised, revealing to the naked eye layer upon layer of a variety of plants and soils,” says one writer.


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    Ganndhara



    Ganndhāra is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Ganndhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning City of Manand Takshashila (modern Taxila).

    The Kingdom of Ganndara lasted from c. the 6th century BCE to the 11th century CE. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Hindu Shahi, a term used by history writer Al-Biruni to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the tenth and eleventh centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 CE, the name ****hara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.

    Geography

    The Ganndhāri people were settled since the Vedic times on the banks of Kabul River (river Kubhā or Kabol) up to its mouth into the Indus. Later Ganndhāra included parts of northwest Punjab. Ganndhara was located on the northern trunk road (Uttarapatha) and was a centre of international commercial activities. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran and Central Asia.

    The boundaries of Ganndhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Ganndhara and sometimes the Swat valley (Sanskrit: Suvāstu) was also included. The heart of Ganndhara however was always the Peshawar valley. The kingdom was ruled from capitals at Pushkalavati (Charsadda), Taxila, Purushapura (Peshawar) and in its final days from Udabhandapura (Hund) on the Indus. According to the Puranas, they have been named after Taksha and Pushkara, the two sons of Bharata, a king of Ayodhya.

    Ancient Ganndhara

    Prehistoric Period


    Evidence of Stone Age human inhabitants of Ganndhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves. The artifacts are approximately 15,000 years old. More recent excavations point to 30,000 years before present.

    To date, no evidence of the Harappan Culture of the Indus Valley Civilization has been found in Ganndhara. According to some scholars, the Aryans moved into Ganndhara and the rest of North Western Pakistan around 1500BC.

    The region shows an influx of southern Central Asian culture in the Bronze Age with the Ganndhara grave culture, likely corresponding to immigration of Indo-Aryan speakers and the nucleus of Vedic civilization. This culture survived till 600 BC. Its evidence has been discovered in the hilly regions of Swat and Dir, and even at Taxila.

    The name of the Ganndhāris is attested in the Rigveda (RV 1.120.1) and in ancient inscriptions dating back to Achaemenid Persia. The Behistun inscription listing the 23 territories of King Darius I (519 BC) includes Ganndāra along with Bactria and Thatagush (ϑataguš, Satagydia). In the book "Histories" by Heroditus, Ganndhara is named as a source of tax collections for King Darius. The Ganndhāris, along with the Balhika (Bactrians), Mūjavants, Angas, and the Magadhas, are also mentioned in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.22.14), as distant people. Ganndharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. The Aitareya Brahmana refers to king Naganajit of Ganndhara who was contemporary of Janaka, king of Videha.

    Ganndharas and their king figure prominently as strong allies of the Kurus against the Pandavas in the Mahabharata war. The Ganndharas were well trained in the art of war. According to Puranic traditions, this country (Janapada) was founded by Ganndhāra, son of Aruddha, a descendant of Yayāti. The princes of this country are said to have come from the line of Druhyu who was an (assumed) king of the Druhyu tribe of the Rigvedic period. According to Vayu Purana (II.36.107), the Ganndharas were destroyed by Pramiti aka Kalika, at the end of Kaliyuga.
    Mother Goddess (fertility divinity), derived from the Indus Valley tradition, terracotta, Sar Dheri, Ganndhara, 1st century BC, Victoria and Albert Museum

    The Ganndhara kingdom sometimes also included Kashmir. Hecataeus of Miletus (549–468) refers to Kaspapyros (sometimes interpreted as referring to Kashmira) as a Ganndaric city. According to Ganndhara Jataka, (Jataka No 406), at one time, Ganndhara formed a part of the kingdom of Kashmir. The Jataka also gives another name Chandahara for Ganndhara. Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya refer to sixteen great countries (Mahajanapadas) which flourished in the Indian subcontinent during Buddha's time; only two of them, the Ganndhara and the Kamboja were located in the Uttarapatha or the northwestern division.

    Ganndhāra is also thought to be the location of the mystical Lake Dhanakosha, the birthplace of Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism. The bKa' brgyud (Kagyu) sect of Tibetan Buddhism identifies the lake with the Andan Dheri stupa, located near the tiny village of Uchh near Chakdara in the lower Swat Valley. A spring was said to flow from the base of the stupa to form the lake. Archaeologists have found the stupa but no spring or lake can be identified.

    Pushkalavati and Prayag

    The primary cities of Ganndhara were Purushapura (now Peshawar), Takshashila or Taxila) and Pushkalavati. The latter remained the capital of Ganndhara from the 6th century BC to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century. Pushkalavati in the Peshawar Valley is situated at the confluence of the Swat and Kabul rivers, where three different branches of the River Kabul meet. That specific place is still called Prang (from Prayāga) and considered sacred and where local people still bring their dead for burial. Similar geographical characteristics are found at site of Prang in Kashmir and at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna, where the sacred city of Prayag is situated, west of Benares. Prayāga (Allahabad) one of the ancient pilgrim centres of India as the two rivers are said to be joined here by the underground Sarasvati River, forming a triveṇī, a confluence of three rivers.

    Taxila

    The Ganndharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhistcentre of learning from the 5th century BC[6] to the 2nd century.

    Persian rule

    Cyrus the Great (558–530 BC) built first the "universal" empire, stretching from Greece to the Indus River. Both Ganndhara and Kamboja soon came under the rule of the Achaemenian Dynasty of Persia during the reign of Cyrus the Great or in the first year of Darius I. The Ganndhara and Kamboja had constituted the seventh satrapies (upper Indus) of the Achaemenid Empire.

    When the Achamenids took control of this kingdom, Pushkarasakti, a contemporary of king Bimbisara of Magadha, was the king of Ganndhara. He was engaged in a power struggle against the kingdoms of Avanti and Pandavas.

    The inscription on Darius' (521–486 BC) tomb at Naqsh-i-Rustam near Persepolis records GADĀRA (Ganndāra) along with HINDUSH (Hənduš, Sindh) in the list of satrapies.

    Under the Persian rule, a system of centralized administration with a bureaucratic system was introduced in the region. Influenced by the Persians and having access to Western Asian civilizations, great scholars such as Panini and perhaps Kautilya lived in this cosmopolitan environment. The Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic (the official language of Achaemenids) developed here and remained national script of Ganndhara until third century AD.

    By about 380 BC Persian hold on the region weakened. Many small kingdoms sprang up in Ganndhara. In 327 BC Alexander the Great conquered Ganndhara and the Indian Satrapies of the Persian Empire. The expeditions of Alexander were recorded by his court historians and by Arrian (around AD 175) in his Anabasis and other chroniclers many centuries after the event.

    The companions of Alexander the Great did not record the names of Kamboja and Ganndhara, rather they located a dozen small political units within their territories. Alexander conquered most of these political units of the former Ganndhara, Sindhu and Kamboja Mahajanapadas.

    According to Greek chroniclers, at the time of Alexander's invasion hyparchs Kubhesha, Hastin (Astes), and Ambhi (Omphes) were ruling the lower Kabul valley, Puskalavati (modern Charasadda), and Taxila, respectively, while Ashvajit (chief of Aspasios or Ashvayanas) and Assakenos (chief of Assakenois or Ashvakayanas, both being parts of the Kambojas) ruled the upper Kabul valley and Mazaga (Mashkavati), respectively.

    Ganndhara under the Mauryas


    Chandragupta, the founder of Mauryan dynasty is said to have lived in Taxila when Alexander captured this city. Here he supposedly met Kautilya, who remained his chief adviser throughout his career. Supposedly using Ganndhara as his base, Chandragupta led a rebellion against the Magadha Empire and ascended the throne at Pataliputra in 321 BC. However, there are no contemporary Indian records of Chandragupta Maurya and almost all that is known is based on the diaries of Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus at Pataliputra. Ganndhara was acquired from the Greeks by Chandragupta Maurya.

    After a battle with Seleucus Nicator (Alexander's successor in Asia) in 305 BC, the Mauryan Emperor extended his domains up to and including Southern Afghanistan. With the completion of the Empire's Grand Trunk Road, the region prospered as a center of trade. Ganndhara remained a part of the Mauryan Empire for about a century and a half.

    Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta, was the one of the greatest Indian rulers. Like his grandfather, Ashoka also started his career from Ganndhara as a governor. Later he supposedly became a Buddhist and promoted this religion in his empire. He built many stupas in Ganndhara. Mauryan control over northwestern frontier, including the Yonas, Kambojas, and the Ganndharas is attested from the Rock Edicts left by Ashoka. According to one school of scholars, the Ganndharas and Kambojas were cognate people. It is also contended that the Kurus, Kambojas, Ganndharas and Bahlikas were cognate people and all had Iranian affinities.According to Dr T. L. Shah, the Ganndhara and Kamboja were nothing but two provinces of one empire and were located coterminously hence influencing each others language.Naturally, they may have once been one people. Ganndhara was often linked politically with the neighboring regions of Kashmir and Kamboja.

    Ganndhara under Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas, and Indo-Parthians

    The decline of the Empire left the sub-continent open to the inroads by the Greco-Bactrians. Southern Afghanistan was absorbed by Demetrius I of Bactria in 180 BC. Around about 185 BC, Demetrius invaded and conquered Ganndhara and the Punjab. Later, wars between different groups of Bactrian Greeks resulted in the independence of Ganndhara from Bactria and the formation of the Indo-Greek kingdom. Menander was its most famous king. He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala (Sialkot). He rebuilt Taxila (Sirkap) and Pushkalavati. He became a Buddhist and is remembered in Buddhists records due to his discussions with a great Buddhist philosopher, Nāgasena, in the book Milinda Panha.

    Around the time of Menander's death in 140 BC, the Central Asian Kushans overran Bactria and ended Greek rule there. Around 80 BC, the Sakas, diverted by their Parthian cousins from Iran, moved into Ganndhara and other parts of Pakistan and Western India. The most famous king of the Sakas, Maues, established himself in Ganndhara.

    By 90 BC the Parthians had taken control of eastern Iran and in around 50 BC they put an end to the last remnants of Greek rule in Afghanistan. Eventually an Indo-Parthian dynasty succeeded in taking control of Ganndhara. The Parthians continued to support Greek artistic traditions. The start of the Ganndharan Greco-Buddhist art is dated to about 75–50 BC. Links between Rome and the Indo-Parthian kingdoms existed. There is archaeological evidence that building techniques were transmitted between the two realms. Christian records claim that around AD 40 Thomas the Apostle visited India and encountered the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares.

    The Golden Age of Kushan Rule

    The Parthian dynasty fell about 75 to another group from Central Asia. The Kushans, known as Yuezhi in China (although ethnically Asii) moved from Central Asia to Bactria, where they stayed for a century. Around 75, one of their tribes, the Kushan (Kuṣāṇa), under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises gained control of Ganndhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan.

    The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Ganndhara. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are littered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. Ganndharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of Indian sculpture. Many monuments were created to commemorate the Jataka tales.

    The Ganndhara civilization peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka (128–151). The cities of Taxila (Takshasila) at Sirsukh and Peshawar were built. Peshawar became the capital of a great empire stretching from Bengal to Central Asia. Kanishka was a great patron of the Buddhist faith; Buddhism spread to Central Asia and the Far East across Bactria and Sogdia, where his empire met the Han Empire of China. Buddhist art spread from Ganndhara to other parts of Asia. Under Kanishka, Ganndhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrim to see monuments associated with many Jataka tales.

    In Ganndhara, Mahayana Buddhism flourished and Buddha was represented in human form. Under the Kushans new Buddhists stupas were built and old ones were enlarged. Huge statues of the Buddha were erected in monasteries and carved into the hillsides. Kanishka also built a great tower to a height of 400 feet at Peshawar. This tower was reported by Faxian ([Fa-hsien]), Songyun (Sung-yun) and Xuanzang ([Hsuan-tsang]). This structure was destroyed and rebuilt many times until it was finally destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.

    After Kanishka, the empire started losing territories in the east. In the west, Ganndhara came under the Sassanid, the successor state of the Parthians, and became their vassal from AD 241 until 450.

    Ganndhara after invasion by the Huns

    The Hepthalite Huns captured Ganndhara around AD 450, and did not adopt Buddhism. During their rule, Hinduism was revived but the Ganndharan Civilization declined. The Sassanids, aided by Turks from Central Asia, destroyed the Huns' power base in Central Asia, and Ganndhara once again came under Persian suzerainty in AD 568. When the Sassanids were defeated by the Muslim Arabs in AD 644, Ganndhara along with Kabul was ruled by Buddhist Turks.

    The travel records of many Chinese Buddhists pilgrims record that Ganndhara was going through a transformation during these centuries. Buddhism was declining and Hinduism was rising. Fa-Hsien travelled around AD 400, when Prakrit was the language of the people and Buddhism was flourishing. 100 years later, when Sung-Yun visited in AD 520, a different picture was described: the area had been destroyed by Huns and was ruled by Lae-Lih who did not practice laws of the Buddha. Hsuan-Tsang visited India around AD 644 and found Buddhism on the wane in Ganndhara and Hinduism in the ascendant. Ganndhara was ruled by a king from Kabul, who respected Buddha's law, but Taxila was in ruins and Buddhist monasteries were deserted. Instead, Hindu temples were numerous and Hinduism was popular.

    Ganndhara under Turkishahi and Hindushahi

    After the fall of the Sassanid Empire to the Arabs in 644, Afghanistan and Ganndhara came under pressure from Muslims. But they failed to extend their empire to Ganndhara. Ganndhara was first ruled from Kabul and then from Udabhandapura (Hind).

    In 665 Kabul was besieged by the Arabs who did not cross the Hindu Kush. The Arabs took Kabul. They relinquished some of its control as ****hara was ruled from Kabul by Turkshahi for next 200 years. Sometime in the 9th century the Hindushahi replaced the Turkishahi. Based on various Muslim records the estimated date for this is 870. According to Al-Biruni (973–1048), Kallar, a Brahmin minister of the Turkshahi, founded the Hindushahi dynasty in 843. The dynasty ruled from Kabul, later moved their capital to Udabhandapura. They built great temples all over their kingdoms. Some of these buildings are still in good condition in the Salt Range of the Punjab.

    End of Ganndhara

    Jayapala was the last great king of this dynasty. His empire extended from west of Kabul to the river Sutlej. However, this expansion of Ganndhara kingdom coincided with the rise of the powerful Ghaznavid Empire under Sabuktigin. Defeated twice by Sabuktigin and then by Mahmud of Ghazni in the Kabul valley, Jayapala committed suicide. Anandapala, a son of Jayapala, moved his capital near Nandana in the Salt Range. In 1021 the last king of this dynasty, Trilocanapala, was assassinated by his own troops which spelled the end of Ganndhara. Subsequently, some Shahi princes moved to Kashmir and became active in local politics.

    The city of Kandahar in Afghanistan is said to have been named after Ganndhara. According to H.W. Bellow, an emigrant from Ganndhara in the fifth century brought this name to modern Kandahar. Faxian reported that the Buddha's alms-bowl existed in Peshawar Valley when he visited around AD 400 (chapter XII). In 1872 Bellow saw this huge begging bowl (seven feet in diameter) preserved in the shrine of Sultan Wais outside Kandahar. When Olaf Caroe wrote his book in 1958 (Caroe, pp. 170–171), this relic was reported to be at Kabul Museum. The present status of this bowl unknown.

    Al Biruni writing c. 1030 CE, reported on the devastation caused during the conquest of Ganndhara and much of northwest India by Mahmud of Ghazni following his defeat of Jayapala at Peshawar in 1001 CE:

    "Now in the following times no Muslim conqueror passed beyond the frontier of Kâbul and the river Sindh until the days of the Turks, when they seized the power in Ghazna under the Sâmânî dynasty, and the supreme power fell to the lot of Nâṣir-addaula Sabuktagin. This prince chose the holy war as his calling, and therefore called himself Al-gâzî (i.e. warring on the road of Allah). In the interest of his successors he constructed, in order to weaken the Indian frontier, those roads on which afterwards his son Yamin-addaula Maḥmûd marched into India during a period of thirty years and more. God be merciful to both father and son ! Maḥmûd utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places. And there the antagonism between them and all foreigners receives more and more nourishment both from political and religious sources."

    Discovery of Ganndhara

    By the time Ganndhara had been absorbed into the empire of Mahmud of Ghazni, Buddhist buildings were already in ruins and Ganndhara art had been forgotten. After Al-Biruni, the Kashmiri writer Kalhaṇa wrote his book Rajatarangini in 1151. He recorded some events that took place in Ganndhara, and gave details about its last royal dynasty and capital Udabhandapura.

    In the 19th century, British soldiers and administrators started taking interest in the ancient history of the Indian Subcontinent. In the 1830s coins of the post-Ashoka period were discovered and in the same period Chinese travelogues were translated. Charles Masson, James Prinsep, and Alexander Cunningham deciphered the Kharosthi script in 1838. Chinese records provided locations and site plans of Buddhists shrines. Along with the discovery of coins, these records provided necessary clues to piece together the history of Ganndhara. In 1848 Cunningham found Ganndhara sculptures north of Peshawar. He also identified the site of Taxila in the 1860s. From then on a large number of Buddhist statues have been discovered in the Peshawar valley.

    John Marshall performed an excavation of Taxila from 1912 to 1934. He discovered separate Greek, Parthian, and Kushan cities and a large number of stupas and monasteries. These discoveries helped to piece together much more of the chronology of the history of Ganndhara and its art.

    After 1947 Ahmed Hassan Dani and the Archaeology Department at University of Peshawar made a number of discoveries in the Peshawar and Swat Valley. Excavation on many sites of the Ganndhara Civilization are being done by researchers from Peshawar and several universities around the world.

    Language

    The Ganndharan Buddhist texts are both the earliest Buddhist and South Asian manuscripts discovered so far. Most are written on birch bark and were found in labeled clay pots. Panini has mentioned both the Vedic form of Sanskrit as well as what seems to be Ganndhari, a later form (bhāṣā) of Sanskrit, in his Ashtadhyayi.

    Ganndhara's language was a Prakrit or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialect, usually called Gāndhārī. Texts are written right-to-left in the Kharoṣṭhī script, which had been adapted for Indian languages from a Semitic alphabet, the Aramaic alphabet. Ganndhāra was then controlled by the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire, which used the Aramaic script to write the Iranian languages of the Empire.

    Semitic scripts were not used to write South Asian languages again until the arrival of Islam and subsequent adoption of the Persian-style Arabic alphabet for New Indo-Aryan languages like Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Kashmiri. Kharosthi script died out about the 4th century. However, the Hindko and the archaic Dardic and Kohistani dialects, derived from the local Indo-Aryan Prakrits, are still spoken today. However, the Afghan language Pashto, is the most dominant language of the region today.

    Ganndharan art

    Ganndhāra is noted for the distinctive Ganndhāra style of Buddhist art, which developed out of a merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Indian artistic influence. This development began during the Parthian Period (50 BC – AD 75). Ganndhāran style flourished and achieved its peak during the Kushan period, from the 1st to the 5th century. It declined and suffered destruction after invasion of the White Huns in the 5th century.




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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    yet again noor... keep it up... nice work

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    yet again, thanx j-dam

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by Noorlight View Post
    yet again, thanx j-dam
    Welcome jee...

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  25. #25
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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by Noorlight View Post
    thanx xeon mujhe nehien pata tha ke eik thread already bana hua hai, nehien to mein app ke thread mein hi add kar deti. chalein, mein zaroor jaoon gi ayr MeharGarh par jo bhi info mili wo share karoon gi
    Sis aap ka thread is way better than mine. itnee info aik jaga kahan sai miltee mujh ko. Darasal maira dil kerta hai ke in sab jagah ke baare main aik book banaoon full of images and info. InshAllah Allah nai moka diya tu.

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  26. #26
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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    i wanted to be an archeologist !

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by xeon View Post
    Sis aap ka thread is way better than mine. itnee info aik jaga kahan sai miltee mujh ko. Darasal maira dil kerta hai ke in sab jagah ke baare main aik book banaoon full of images and info. InshAllah Allah nai moka diya tu.
    thanx Xeon. aur app ka jo book bananey ka idea bohat acha hai, Inshallah app zaroor banaeyein gey, aur mein bhi jitney info aur pics provide kar sakti hoon karoon gi.

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    Quote Originally Posted by Tiara View Post
    i wanted to be an archeologist !
    nice! i think i would like to be one too. it is really inetersting. i really like it.

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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    @Xeon
    Acknowledgments me mera naam zarur mention karna...


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    Default Re: Pakistan historical places and info

    wow, Nice work =)

    V.Informative


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